Roundtable on Human Security documents
The concept of Human Security issues to be discussed
by the Civil Forum
The end of the Cold War and bi-polar confrontation in 1990s seemed to signify the beginning of global peace and welfare. No ideological barriers, the interstate climate got warmer, and the intense contacts between civil societies of former adversary states began. But in spite of primary hopes and open perspectives the practice showed that the XXI century didn’t get more secure.
The nature of modern threats and challenges has been significantly modified. The problem of fight against international terrorism has been brought to the forefront, especially after the terrorist act of the 11th of September, 2001 unexampled by its scale and cruelty. Russia has repeatedly felt terrorist acts – the tragedy in Beslan, taking hostages in Moscow and Budennovsk, dwelling houses and planes blown up.
The phenomenon of globalization also led to globalization and intensification of contacts and ties between all shadow structures – international organized crime, drug mafia and international terrorist networks.
The globalization phenomena gave the problem of non-proliferation and arms control a new dimension. Today these issues are especially acute because of its possible acquisition by terrorists as well as rogue-states with politically unstable and extremist regimes.
The problem of regional conflicts prevention and settlement has taken on special significance and new nuances, despite the earlier hopes. The number of interstate and domestic conflicts, having interethnic, religious, territorial and other contradictions has enormously increased. The problem of the so called “classic” conflicts so typical for the international relations during a long period of time has waned. On the contrary, the domestic conflicts engendered by the waves of separatism, extreme nationalism and religious fundamentalism, as well as new threats of international terrorism and organized crime have come to the fore.
The problems of the vital resources and global ecosystem exhaustion as well as the increasing global inequality (“global apartheid”) also have a serious conflict potential for the future.
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On January 1st, 2006 the Russian Federation for the first time assumed presidency in the G8 – the group of leading industrial democracies. Besides this year summit priorities (global energy security, education, infectious diseases counteraction) Russian President Vladimir Putin has also mentioned such problems as fighting international terrorism, non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and regional conflicts management.
Being extremely important for the world community these issues will be also discussed at the 2006 G8 summit in St Petersburg.
Nevertheless, these issues are not new for the G8 Group. In 1979, before the Tokyo summit a humanitarian issue, having however an obvious political nature has been suggested as a touchstone for the discussion. The Japan Premier has been suggested to prepare a speech about the problem of refugees from Vietnam and Kampuchea. During the 1980 summit in Venice the situation in Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion, the situation in Iran after the “Islamic revolution”, the Middle East problems were actively discussed. In 1980s the discussion of the security issues became a tradition of the summits. In 1986 the Tokyo summit declared a common position on the counteraction to the international terrorism.
Despite the fact, that during several years the security issues were important for the G7/G8 and there is a whole range of initiatives in this sphere, the necessary cooperation of the G8 official structures with the civil society institutions of G8 states and other countries are still lacking.
Taking into consideration that the best result can be achieved only with the participation of all interested parties – official, nongovernmental, expert structures – the main tasks of the civil society representatives meeting are as follows:
• to find optimal methods and forms of cooperation of the G8 official structures with the civil society institutions within the sphere of human security;
• to find out, what initiatives the civil society can raise, what resources it can provide to assist in the problems solution;
• to elaborate the recommendations in the sphere of non-proliferation, counterterrorism measures and conflict prevention and settlement for the Sherpas.
Issues on the Agenda:
1. Non-proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction: solution of the problem within the framework of the G8 summit.
• Global Partnership:implementation from the point of view of the state and society security
• Non-proliferation: key problems and concerns of the other G8 states
• Possibilities of further steps aimed at arms control and non-proliferation outside the G8 – CIS and the Third World countries
• Providing security in the Asia-Pacific region. The role of Japan
• Possibilities and importance of the civil society participation in the solution of non-proliferation problems
• Interdependency of non-proliferation and the threat of international terrorism
• The “Iran dossier” as part of the agenda (view from Iran, Russia, Europe/USA)
2. Antiterrorist activities and the G8
• Technological, financial and political aspects of counteractions to the terrorism threats within the G8 (activities within FATF, SAFTI etc.)
• The imperfection of G8 activities in the counterterrorism activities
• NGOs recommendations of additional possibilities for fighting terrorism
• The Roma/Lyon Group and the threat of terrorism in connection with the further globalization of international relations, the interlacing of the aspects of the counterterrorism with fighting international crime and drug trafficking
• The G8 cooperation with other international organizations (ICAO, ICO (International Customs Organization), and Committees (The UN Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC)). Work of the G8 Counter-Terrorism Action Group (CTAG).
• The threat of terrorism and the respect of human rights
3. Regional Conflicts: prevention and settlement
• The Middle East problem: the Bigger Middle East and North Africa (BMENA) Initiative. Quartet activities and its cooperation with the G8. Role of local civil society.
• Africa (Sudan-Darfur): peacekeeping initiatives and strengthening the anti-conflict potential of the regional organizations (the African Union etc.); the G8 possibilities in this sphere.
• Yugoslavia – the retrospective of the G8 participation in Kosovo settlement; tolerance, post-war peacemaking activities in Kosovo; lessons for another “hotspots”.
• The factor of developing regional giants within the framework of the regional security.
• The contribution of the G8 states, other states and international organizations to the post-war peacemaking process all over the world.
• Role of global civil society in tackling regional conflicts: cooperation with authorities in structural policies
CIVIL 8 INTERNATIONAL NGOFORUM STATEMENT
ON HUMAN SECURITY ISSUES
1. Civil society representatives, participants of the Civil G8 Forum in Moscow on March 9-10, 2006 have agreed that proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and delivery systems, international terrorism, and intensification of regional and internal conflicts represent a growing threat to international peace and security and thus to each and every human being. In addition, the participants feel that new development – erosion of human rights and the rule of law in the context of fighting terrorism – presents a challenge to global security.
2. Issues of security have traditionally been considered as the state prerogative. Nevertheless, these problems have a clear human security dimension and have better chances for success if dealt with in cooperation with civil society organisations.
Non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and its delivery systems
3. Forum participants expressed concern about the erosion of the non-proliferation regime and expressed hope that the G8 countries will take active measures to strengthen and consolidate the regime.
4. Participants acknowledged that there’s been a headway by the G8 in dealing with the problem in particular through the G8 Global Partnership Against Proliferation of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (GP). Nevertheless we consider that the urgency of WMD proliferation threat requires speedier and more effective implementation of this initiative. To this end we think it is necessary to increase the funding of the Global Partnership program; to establish better control over the efficiency of spending of allocated funds; to consider measures to extend the program beyond 2012 and to make it sustainable (in particular through commercialisation of projects and promoting nonproliferation education and culture). The program would benefit if it moves from "donor - recepient" relationship to true partnership.
5. Civil society organisations of Global Partnership countries are ready to share their expertise with the G8 governments to find the most efficient ways to implement the program.
Conflict Prevention and Management
6. Participants feel that in order to prevent and manage regional conflicts, both civil society and governments need to promote political pluralism, create a culture of tolerance and fight corruption. G8 dialogue with civil society in politically unstable countries and regions is of paramount importance.
(7. In the regions where shortage of vital resources is the reason for conflict, close control over their fair distribution should be established in cooperation with civic organisations. )
Fight Against Terrorism
8. In support to the G8 Statement, made at Gleneagles Summit in July 2005, participants condemn all terrorism acts as criminal acts and crimes against humanity without regard of their motivation and confirm that there can be no reasons or justifications to murder of people.
9. While the forum participants support the necessity of effective anti-terrorism measures, they express serious concern about erosion of human rights and the rule of law in the context of fighting terrorism in the G8 countries and across the globe and support efforts of the United Nations to address this problem.
10. Participants call for the development by G8 countries of effective models of dealing with hostage taking where saving the lives of hostages is the highest priority and sharing these models with each other.
11. We call on the G8 countries to review national anti-terrorist legislation in the light of restoring balance between security measures and international human rights standards based on the principle of proportionality and extreme necessity.
11. Participants call on the G8 countries to review anti-terrorist practices in the zones of counter-terrorist operations in order to ensure adherence to the norms of international human rights and humanitarian law standards and stop the impunity of perpetrators of human rights abuse against civilians.
12. (Participants are concerned about the instances of the use of security threats to justify changes in the legislation leading to undermining of democratic institutions and call on the G8 countries to consider coordinated policies reversing this trend.)
13. (Citizens are not just objects of the acts of terrorism but actors in building a safer world.) Participants call on the G8 countries to develop and implement security measures in dialogue with members of the public and civil society organisations.