"On Activities to Ensure Global Energy Security". Recommendations of the Forum on the meeting of the heads of G8 countries in St. Petersburg in July 2006
We, representatives of NGO and Civil Society, united by the process “Civil Eight-2006”, as a result of the discussion of the problems of global energy securing on 9-10 March 2006 in Moscow, Russia, regard it as our duty to notify the heads of the G8 countries and all the global community on the following.
Global needs in energy resources are giant and they continue to grow steadily with increase of fuel and power consumption in developed countries, growth of economies and population of the developing countries. Within the present world availability and accessibility of fuel and energy resources, ensuring of their uninterrupted supply to consumers and efficient use by the consumers has become the basic factors of the global progress, diminishing of poverty, increase of well-being, cultural and intellectual development of the population.
At the same time, present state and tendencies, which have been recently formed in development of the global energy, relying on extraction, transportation and burning of fossil hydrocarbon fuel – oil and gas, are not exactly in line with the current challenges and tasks faced by the mankind, and therefore may not but raise justifiable concerns about future of the present and next generations. Foreseeable exhausting of available hydrocarbon materials stock, vulnerability of sources and routes of their transportation for attacks of the global terrorism, increasing monopolisation of the industry and sharp jump of energy prices invite danger for energy security in the global scale. Non-controlled growth of production, transportation and burning of fossil fuels has negative, oppressive impact to the environment, and results in negative anthropogenic climate change, growth of the related negative phenomena – hurricanes, droughts, floods, avalanching, ablation of permafrost, etc., and thereby raises danger to stability of the global economics, life and health of humans.
Nuclear energy, which is frequently considered as an alternative source and next stage of energy development, also causes considerable concern of NGO and civil society on the whole. First of all, from the point of view of safety and reliability of nuclear objects, possibility of early warning and protection of the population inhabiting the areas in proximity to nuclear facilities in case of radiation hazards, resolution of transportation, storage and processing of nuclear wastes problems, including spent nuclear fuel, reactor dismantling and other equipment with the expired life cycle. Besides, possible interrelation of nuclear energy and distribution of nuclear weapons cannot be left out of account, especially in the countries of the Third World, which under aggravation of international strives and strengthening of the global terrorism may result in catastrophic after effects for the mankind.
At this background it has become the crying need to change the prevailing energy paradigm, transfer to stable energy development in order to ensure global energy safety on the basis of energy saving and efficient use of new and renewable sources of fuel and power. The priority should be given to technologies of energy generation from biomass (first of all on the basis of disposal of industrial and household wastes, biogas), to clean coal technologies of power generation as a result of coal gasification, wind, solar, tidal, geothermal power plants, dam-free hydroelectric power stations, hydrogen energy, etc.
For decades the notable scientists and non-government organisations have been insisting on change of the energy policy in the leading countries of the world. Hence, so far little or nothing has been done in this sphere. Now it is the time for decisive actions. Proposal of energy security issues for agenda of the G8 leaders meeting in 2006 in St. Petersburg demonstrate shift in understanding of this key problem of the modern world.
The given priority is the reasonable development of main topics of climate change and Africa problems in Gleneagles in 2005 that we completely support.
Consistent solution of energy security tasks requires taking of measures at the international and national levels, emergent and coordinated actions with the objective to develop and introduce efficient energy-saving technologies and technologies of clean energy generation on the basis of renewable sources, manufacturing and sale of the corresponding equipment at reasonable prices. Efforts of the countries and governments should be first of all aimed at breaking of the currently existing organisational, administrative and financial barriers in this sphere, at creation f the corresponding economic stimulus for companies and households, at development of the ‘green’ energy market. At that, the problems of energy security must be resolved in complex, with consideration of manufacturers and consumers interests and linking with solution of environment protection problems and mitigation of climate changes.
To achieve the global energy security and sustainable development of the mankind the leading industrial countries of the world and, first of all, the G8 countries have to undertake coordinated efforts in order to achieve the following long-term goals:
Reduction (as compared to the present) of damages, decrease in risks of damages to the environment and human living conditions, which occurring during production, transportation, procession and use of conventional energy resources of the XX century, storage and disposal of waste produced at all stages of their live cycle;
By the middle (optional end) of the XXI century transition to the prevailing use of new and renewable energy sources located as close as possible to the final consumers and available for most inhabitants of the planet.
NGO expect that the heads of G8 countries and energy companies of the world would produce clear and responsible energy policy and view their mission in providing assistance to the governments and businesses in selection of the most expedient, socially and ecologically significant steps. First of all, by joint efforts it is required to achieve implementation of all the positive resolutions, which have been priory made during meetings of the G8 leaders, especially in the sphere of renewable energy sources development.
NGO plan to establish a system of monitoring for legislation and actual steps of governments and companies in the sphere of crucial issues of energy security and energy policy.
Among the results of the summit 2006 shall also be commissions to the G8 governments, as well as preparation for consideration and endorsement at the summit 2007 in Germany the projects of international documents on the following issues:
1. Expansion and deepening of energy saving fundamental processes in G8 countries and in the world by means of spreading of the corresponding economic tools and technologies, levelling (between countries) of introduction stages of the advanced energy saving technologies, energy and ecology standards.
2. Ensuring of non-exhausting use of energy resources, creation of guarantees of energy availability for future generations inhabiting the Earth. For this purpose it will be required to:
• set exact terms for transition to new technologies for production and saving of energy linked with development of renewable energy;
• ensure efficient work of the G8’s Renewable Energy Task Force;
• achieve increase up to 20 % in the proportion of renewable resources in the total energy production by G8 countries by 2020;
• with participation of all the involved countries, establish foundation for fundamental energy research;
• ensure involvement of the largest developing countries – China and India – in the activity on development, production and introduction of energy saving technologies, transfer to renewable energy sources and by this reduction of greenhouse gases emission;
• take measures on public opinion forming – fashion for energy efficient lifestyle, including consumption of appropriate goods and services;
• provide assistance in sharing of advanced clean technologies, especially with the developing countries.
3. At the year of the 20th anniversary of Chernobyl catastrophe we suggest to phase out programs on construction of new units and continuation of operation of the working nuclear energy units, once and for all stop the state subsidies of any type into nuclear energy in G8 countries, with the exception of financing of works on ensuring of nuclear facilities safety, unloading and burying of nuclear fuel wastes and other nuclear wastes, dismantling and disposal of the corresponding nuclear equipment. In spite of different points of view, worded by participants of the round table, most part of them consider that nuclear energy is not a stable way of the energy development, and insist on abandoning of nuclear energy use and suggest introduction of prohibition of trans-border circulation of nuclear wastes, including nuclear fuels waste.
4. Reduction (as compared to the present) of damages, decrease in risks of damages to the environment and human living conditions, which occurring during production, transportation, procession and use of energy resources, storage and disposal of waste produced at all stages of their live cycle. For this purpose it is required to make and regularly update the list of the best technologies available in the sphere of production, transportation, processing and use of energy resources, storage and burial of wastes; not to permit existence of double standards in production, pipe and marine delivery of hydrocarbons. In addition, it seems practicable to accept within the G8 mutual obligations of the countries on safeguard of ecological safety of big lake ecosystems (Great American Lakes, Baikal Lake, Issyk-Kul Lake, etc.), and especially valuable and vulnerable objects of nature in Arctic when producing and transporting hydrocarbon fuels.
5. The G8 countries must define their quantitative obligations on reduction of greenhouse gas emission; promote, including by demonstration of their own examples and by other available ways, gradual involvement of all countries (both developed and developing) in activities on mitigation of anthropogenic climate change. Representatives of NGO and civil society appeal for the G8 leaders to support proposal of the European Union on limitation of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases on the basis of ultimate possible average annual temperature growth by 2 Celsius degrees by 2050 versus the “pre-industrial” level of the mid ÕIÕ century, as temperature changes in excess of 2 degrees may result in irreversible changes in ecological systems and significant social and economic losses because of the sharply increased number and severity of negative phenomena: droughts, floods, hurricanes, heat waves, dissolution of ice and permafrost.
6. Creation of new standards and economic stimulus for investments into energy savings and renewable energy sources, expansion of scientific research in this sphere. Develop and introduce international standards on increase of the share of renewable energy sources (for countries with different development levels and national economy structure). In particular, starting from 2010 introduction of the standard specific fuel rate, harmonized at the level of G8 countries, for newly produced cars and provisions for its consecutive gradual reduction.
7. Ensuring of mutually agreed by G8 information transparency level for the energy, including transparency of financial resources and mechanisms of formation of energy prices, publishing of information on stock and production of different fuel and power types, as well as data on impact of fuel and power complex on environment and life of population. Ensure adequate participation of international and national non-government organisations, independent experts and general public in development and discussion of measures (strategy, concepts, programs, etc.) in the energy, including by participation in obligatory environment assessment under the international law standards. Ratify Espoo Convention.
8. Stimulate capital investments of the leading world countries into resolution of global energy problems in order to avoid lack of energy resources (or infrastructure for their delivery), increase diversification of energy consumption structure and safety of energy facilities. Develop, discuss and submit for approval by Summit-2010 projects of national, regional and global investment programs of significant increase in energy efficiency at ensuring of decent lifestyle;
9. Creation of global monitoring system, including nuclear energy facilities, as well as transportation and production of hydrocarbons, including with use of space based equipment in order to prevent environment damaging. Develop and no later than 2010 submit for UN discussion a project of international system of obligatory insurance of environmental risks and compensation of loss (economic responsibility for the loss) incurred by environment and its components, health of population as a result of activities on production, transportation and processing of hydrocarbon and nuclear materials, burial and processing of the wastes.
10. Within the Millennium Development Goals undertake actions on energy supply to the poor and the poorest population in order to ensure their decent existence in the environment of transfer to the renewable energy sources. Rural and poor population should have priority in access to the energy generated by renewable sources.
Civil organisations expect that the G8 would demonstrate large-scale approach to energy security problems.
NGO representatives address Russia as the chairperson of the G8 with request to invite heads of the states and governments of the Group of Five developing countries: Brazil, India, China, Mexico and Republic of South Africa for support of G8 leaders in St. Petersburg, similar to other G8 summits. These countries will be subject to serious impact by any measures of global energy policy agreed by the G8 leaders. Furthermore, Brazil, India and China have achieved bigger success in development of renewable energy sources and energy savings than most countries of the G8. Their experience of success shall help the G8.
We suggest conduct of the meeting on the problem with deeper analysis of G8 proposals in summer 2006. We are prepared to express our attitude to the contents and sufficiency of the proposed steps and to organise regular NGO activities in order to achieve openness and clearness of actions by governments and companies, and to make sure that the actions of state regulation and global coordination are sufficient and comply with long-term objectives of mankind development. In future, we intend to conduct meetings of NGO of the world on problems of energy security.