"Energy Security". Recommendations of the Forum on the meeting of the heads of G8 countries in St. Petersburg in July 2006
3-4 July 2006
Energy security should meet major environmental challenges and thus it includes:
(i) – climate security;
(ii) – security of oil and gas sector in terms of adverse environmental impact; and
(iii) – nuclear energy safety;
which were considered by the Working Group as specific topics.
There is overwhelming scientific consensus that combustion of fossil fuel leads to rapid increase of the greenhouse gases (GHG) concentration in the atmosphere, human induced climate change and related catastrophic events, i.e. droughts, floods, hurricanes, heat-waves, ice and permafrost melting etc, which represent a serious threat to human life and health as well as to sustainability of ecosystems and world economy. During the recent 150 years, global mean temperature has raised by about 10C over the “pre-industrial” mid of the 19th century level. A further substantial increase in temperature can provoke irreversible changes in ecosystems and significant social and economic losses. Early action to reduce emissions in the next two decades is critical.
We, participants of the Civil G8 forum, recognize that while governments must shift from petroleum-based economies to sustainable energy systems, petroleum will remain an important component of global energy supplies for the next few decades. The world is currently at/or near “peak oil” production, and technology exists to dramatically reduce the deleterious impacts of petroleum development in the future.
We understand that economic progress of developing and less developed countries requires reliable access to energy, first of all, for poorest circles, women, handicapped persons, etc. Thus these nations will require diversification of oil and gas transportation, imposing additional risk to environmentally sensitive areas, e.g. the Arctic.
As a practical step toward energy security Public Chamber of G8 2006 host country – Russia, has pointed out initiative on World Conference in Moscow on Global Energy Security and Sustainable Development, which could positively contribute in achievement of our goals.
The use of nuclear energy is an unsustainable way of development of energy production industry as it not only fails to solve the issues of energy security but also aggravates them accounting, at the same time, for less than a 3% share in the global energy balance.
Nuclear energy does not contribute to the mitigation of global climate change but increases the risk of nuclear proliferation and creates an ever-increasing burden of nuclear waste for future generations.
To achieve climate security,
1. We call the G-8 countries to fully commit to keeping the global mean temperature below 20C over the pre-industrial mid of the 19th century level and encourage the rest of the world do so. This will require reduction of the global GHG emissions to at least 50% below 1990 levels by 2050. To meet this objective, market mechanisms, strong governmental regulation and voluntary actions are essential.
2. The G-8 countries must accelerate the implementation of the Gleneagles action plan by establishing ‘long, loud and legal” frameworks for energy efficiency, rapid development of renewable energy and for GHG emissions reduction through targeted, time bound and accountable measures.
3. The G-8 countries should create with its “plus five” partners a multistakeholder renewable energy group in order to identify, develop and transfer the best available technologies, to mobilize financial mechanisms in support and to design a prospective international renewable energy agency.
4. The G-8 countries should progressively shift existing energy subsidies (estimated to amount up to $240 billion per year globally) toward safer, renewable, climate friendly sources and technologies.
We call upon G8 governments to commit to a fundamentally new policy for oil and gas development, transportation, and use that will represent a truly historic accomplishment for the G8:
5. Environmentally sensitive areas (legally established protected areas corresponding to IUCN Categories I-II, World Heritage Sites and recognized biodiversity hotspots) and sacred sites of indigenous people shall remain off-limits to all petroleum activity, including drilling, pipelines, and shipping.
6. A Best Available Technology standard shall be applied consistently across the world in all aspects of oil and gas development. There should be no double-standard employed by trans-national companies between developed and developing nations, and no environmental “dumping” in less developed nations.
7. Governments of oil producing and importing countries shall establish a National Oil Spill Fund through imposition of a per-barrel tax, and to provide full liability for oil spills and shall amend the current international oil spill liability conventions (Civil Liability Convention, International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund, Supplementary Fund via IMO) to provide full coverage for all damages, including environmental (non-economic) damages to ecosystem services. All remaining G8 nations should sign (Japan) and ratify (USA and Russian Federation) the Convention on Environment Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991).
8. To help offset the environmental damage caused by oil development globally, governments shall impose a dedicated Environmental Mitigation Tax on all oil production. These funds should be used for national environmental priorities, including support to energy efficiency and development of sustainable energy systems and to supplement the budget of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to enhance conservation initiatives in developing countries.
In nuclear energy in the year of the 20th Anniversary of the disaster in Chernobyl we hereby demand:
9. All plans to build new and extend the term of operation of old reactors be terminated;
10. Governments put an end to all types of governmental subsidizing of nuclear energy production and use the resources available to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency and savings;
11. All processing and trans-boundary transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste be phased-out;
12. All countries provide opportunities for public participation and monitoring over transnational energy production and nuclear projects based, among other things, on international conventions.